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C1.1.1. Definition and Purpose. SC comprises all activities undertaken by the Department of Defense (DoD) to encourage and enable international partners to work with the United States to achieve strategic objectives. It includes all DoD interactions with foreign defense and security establishments, including all DoD-administered Security Assistance (SA) programs, that build defense and security relationships; promote specific U.S. security interests, including all international armaments cooperation activities and SA activities; develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations; and provide U.S. forces with peacetime and contingency access to host nations. It is DoD policy that SC is an important tool of national security and foreign policy and is an integral element of the DoD mission. SC activities shall be planned, programmed, budgeted, and executed with the same high degree of attention and efficiency as other integral DoD activities. SC requirements shall be combined with other DoD requirements and implemented through standard DoD systems, facilities, and procedures. See DoDD 5132.03.
C1.1.2. Distinguishing Between Security Cooperation and Security Assistance Programs. As the definition of SC above reveals, there are many types of SC activities. For the purposes of this Manual, it is important to be able to distinguish between SC Programs and SA Programs. Programs of both types are the means by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense services to our partner nations in support of U.S. National Security objectives, including Building Partner Capacity (BPC). They are distinguished by the statutes by which they are authorized and funded.
C18.104.22.168. Security Cooperation Programs. SC Program authorizations and appropriations are provided to the Secretary of Defense primarily under the annual National Defense Authorization and Appropriations Act. By statute or Executive Order, they are sometimes required to be exercised in coordination with the Secretary of State. These programs vary greatly in terms of the agency or DoD activity responsible and the manner in which they are planned for and funded. See Chapter 15 for more detailed information on individual programs.
C22.214.171.124. Security Assistance Programs. SA is a group of programs, authorized under Title 22 authorities, by which the United States provides defense articles, military education and training, and other defense-related services by grant, loan, credit, cash sales, or lease, in furtherance of national policies and objectives. All SA programs are subject to the continuous supervision and general direction of the Secretary of State to best serve U.S. foreign policy interests; however, programs are variously administered by DoD or Department of State (DoS). Those SA programs that are administered by DoD are a subset of SC.